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Thanks to the advent of the internet, there own been new ways for aspiring mangaka to upload and sell their manga online.

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Before, there were two main ways in which a mangaka’s work could be published: taking their manga drawn on paper to a publisher themselves, or submitting their work to competitions run by magazines.[74]

Web manga

In recent years, there has been a rise in manga released digitally. Web manga, as it’s known in Japan, has a seen an increase thanks in part to image hosting websites where anyone can upload pages from their works for free. Although released digitally, almost every web manga stick to the conventional black-and-white format despite some never getting physical publications.

Pixiv is the most favorite site where a host of amateur and professional works get published on the site. It has grown to be the most visited site for artwork in Japan.[75] has also become a favorite put for web manga with numerous artists releasing pages weekly on their accounts in the hopes of their works getting picked up or published professionally. One of the best examples of an amateur work becoming professional is One-Punch Man which was released online and later got a professional remake released digitally and an anime adaptation soon there after.[76]

Many of the large print publishers own also released digital only magazines and websites where web manga get published alongside their serialized magazines.

Shogakukan for instance has two websites, Sunday Webry and Ura Sunday, that release weekly chapters for web manga and even offer contests for mangaka to submit their work. Both Sunday Webry and Ura Sunday own become one of the top web manga sites in Japan.[77][78] Some own even released apps that teach how to draw professional manga and study how to create them. Weekly Shōnen Jump released Jump Paint, an app that guides users on how to make their own manga from making storyboards to digitally inking lines.

It also offers more than types of pen tips and more than 1, screentones for artists to practice.[74]Kodansha has also used the popularity of web manga to launch more series and also offer better distribution of their officially translated works under Kodansha Comics thanks in part to the titles being released digitally first before being published physically.[79]

The rise web manga has also been credited to smartphones and computers as more and more readers read manga on their phones rather than from a print publication.

While paper manga has seen a decrease overtime, digital manga own been growing in sales each year. The Research Institute for Publications reports that sales of digital manga books excluding magazines jumped percent to ¥ billion in from the year before while sales of paper manga saw a record year-on-year decline of percent to ¥ billion. They own also said that if the digital and paper hold the same growth and drop rates, web manga will exceed their paper counterparts.[80]


While webtoons own caught on in popularity as a new medium for comics in Asia, Japan has been slow to adopt webtoons as the traditional format and print publication still dominate the way manga is created and consumed.

Despite this, one of the biggest webtoon publishers in the world, Comico, has had success in the traditional Japanese manga market. Comico was launched by NHN Japan, the Japanese subsidiary of Korean company, NHN Entertainment. As of now, there are only two webtoon publishers that publish Japanese webtoons: Comico and Naver Webtoon (under the name XOY in Japan). Kakao has also had success by offering licensed manga and translated Korean webtoons with their service Piccoma.

Every three companies credit their success to the webtoon pay model where users can purchase each chapter individually instead of having to purchase the whole book while also offering some chapters for free for a period of time allowing anyone to read a whole series for free if they wait endless enough.[81] The added benefit of having every of their titles in color and some with special animations and effects own also helped them succeed. Some favorite Japanese webtoons own also gotten anime adaptations and print releases, the most notable being ReLIFE and Recovery of an MMO Junkie.[82][83]

Localized manga

Main articles: Manfra and Original English-language manga

A number of artists in the United States own drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga.

As an early example, Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the tardy s and early s.[] Others include Candid Miller’s mids Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith’s The Dirty Pair,[]Ben Dunn’s Ninja High School and Manga Shi from Crusade Comics ().

By the 21st century several U.S. manga publishers had begun to produce work by U.S. artists under the wide marketing-label of manga.[] In I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of trade, launched a series of manga by U.S.

artists called Amerimanga.[] In eigoMANGA launched the Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakkanthology series. Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[] Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[]

Francophone artists own also developed their own versions of manga (manfra), love Frédéric Boilet’s la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[]

Publications and exhibition

In Japan, manga constituted an annual billion yen (approximately US$ million) publication-industry by [63] In sales of manga books made up for about 27% of entire book-sales, and sale of manga magazines, for 20% of entire magazine-sales.[64] The manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages.

Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership.[65] In specific, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) own distinctive cover-art, and most bookstores put them on diverse shelves. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers may subscribe to a series intended for female readers, and so on. Japan has manga cafés, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). At a manga kissa, people drink coffee, read manga and sometimes stay overnight.

The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a extremely large website listing manga published in Japanese.[66]


See also: List of manga magazines

Manga magazines generally own numerous series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals.

Other magazines love Nakayoshi feature numerous stories written by numerous diverse artists; these magazines, or «anthology magazines», as they are also known (colloquially «phone books»), are generally printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from to more than pages thick. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for numerous years if they are successful.

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Manga artists sometimes start out with a few «one-shot» manga projects just to attempt to get their name out. If these are successful and get excellent reviews, they are continued. Magazines often own a short life.[67]

Collected volumes

After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the episodes together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These can be hardcover, or more generally softcover books, and are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes often use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who desire to «catch up» with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they discover the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive.

«Deluxe» versions own also been printed as readers own gotten older and the need for something special grew. Ancient manga own also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market.


Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyōsai created the first manga magazine in Eshinbun Nipponchi. The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch, founded in by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist.

Eshinbun Nipponchi had a extremely simple style of drawings and did not become favorite with numerous people. Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues. The magazine Kisho Shimbun in was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in , and then Garakuta Chinpo in [68]Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in by Iwaya Sazanami, a renowned author of Japanese children’s literature back then. Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War.[69]

In the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War,[70]Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit.[71] After Tokyo Pakku in , a female version of Shōnen Sekai was created and named Shōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine.[72]Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children’s manga magazine.

The children’s demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period. Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children’s magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon (publisher of the magazine) saw and decided to emulate. In , Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children’s manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku.[71] During the boom, Poten (derived from the French «potin») was published in Every the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Puck.

It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one.[70]Kodomo Pakku was launched May by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by numerous members of the manga artistry love Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka. Some of the manga featured lecture balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use lecture balloons and were silent.[71]

Published from May to January , Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War (–). Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world.

Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyū in August [73]


Main article: Dōjinshi

Dōjinshi, produced by little publishers exterior of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with around , visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to dōjinshi. While they most often contain original stories, numerous are parodies of or include characters from favorite manga and anime series. Some dōjinshi continue with a series’ tale or record an entirely new one using its characters, much love fan fiction.

In , dōjinshi sales amounted to billion yen (US$ million).[63] In they represented about a tenth of manga books and magazines sales.[64]


The expression «manga» comes from the Japanese expression 漫画,[22] composed of the two kanji 漫 (man) meaning «whimsical or impromptu» and 画 (ga) meaning «pictures».[23] The same term is the root of the Korean expression for comics, «manhwa», and the Chinese expression «manhua».[24]

The expression first came into common usage in the tardy 18th century[25] with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden’s picturebook Shiji no yukikai (),[26][27] and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa’s Manga hyakujo () and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books (–)[28] containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the renowned ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[29]Rakuten Kitazawa (–) first used the expression «manga» in the modern sense.[30]

In Japanese, «manga» refers to every kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation.

Among English speakers, «manga» has the stricter meaning of «Japanese comics», in parallel to the usage of «anime» in and exterior Japan. The term «ani-manga» is used to describe comics produced from animation cels.[31]

International markets

Main article: Manga exterior Japan

By , the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades.[84] «Influence» is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets exterior Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally.

Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from correct to left.

Some publishers of translated manga hold to this original format. Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more «Western» left to correct, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers.

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This practice is known as «flipping».[85] For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads «MAY» on it, and gets flipped, then the expression is altered to «YAM»), who may be ignorant of how awkward it is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that’s fairly distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously. If the translation is not adapted to the flipped artwork carefully enough it is also possible for the text to go against the picture, such as a person referring to something on their left in the text while pointing to their correct in the graphic.

Characters shown writing with their correct hands, the majority of them, would become left-handed when a series is flipped. Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the correct, or a shirt with the buttons on the incorrect side, but these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping.[86]


Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way that is somewhat diverse from in the U.S.

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Broadcast anime in France and Italy opened the European market to manga during the s.[87] French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonism)[88] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.[89] In France, beginning in the mids,[90] manga has proven extremely favorite to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since [91] According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $ million within France and Germany alone in [87] France represents about 50% of the European market and is the second worldwide market, behind Japan.[13] In , there were 41 publishers of manga in France and, together with other Asian comics, manga represented around 40% of new comics releases in the country,[92] surpassing Franco-Belgian comics for the first time.[93] European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Asuka, Casterman, Glénat, Kana, and Pika Édition, among others.[citation needed] European publishers also translate manga into Dutch, German, Italian, and other languages.

In , about 70% of every comics sold in Germany were manga.[94]

Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books.[citation needed] Manga publishers from the United States own a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi line from Random House.[citation needed]

United States

Manga made their way only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.[95] Some U.S.

fans became aware of manga in the s and early s.[96] However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans,[97] numerous of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.[98] One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S.

was Keiji Nakazawa’s Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical tale of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (–).[99] More manga were translated between the mids and s, including Golgo 13 in , Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in , and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in and every from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics.[] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics’ Epic Comics imprint, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind from Viz Media, and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in , and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, ) and Ippongi Bang’s F Bandit (Antarctic Press, ).

In the s to the mids, Japanese animation, love Akira, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga.[] Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of numerous Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow’s Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima’s Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[] Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S.

market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan’s catalogue and translation skills.[85]

Japanese publishers began pursuing a U.S. market in the mids due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga.[] The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mids anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow’s Ghost in the Shell (translated by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith) becoming extremely favorite among fans.[] An extremely successful manga and anime translated and dubbed in English in the mids was Sailor Moon.[] By –, the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America and most of Europe.[] In , Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP’s Magic Knight Rayearth, Hitoshi Iwaaki’s Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi’s Ice Blade in the monthly manga magazine MixxZine.

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Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, love Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[]

During this period, Dark Horse Manga was a major publisher of translated manga. In addition to Oh My Goddess!, the company published Akira, Astro Boy, Berserk, Blade of the Immortal, Ghost in the Shell, Lone Wolf and Cub, Yasuhiro Nightow’s Trigun and Blood Blockade Battlefront, Gantz, Kouta Hirano’s Hellsing and Drifters, Blood+, Multiple Personality Detective Psycho, FLCL, Mob Psycho , and Oreimo.

The company received 13 Eisner Award nominations for its manga titles, and three of the four manga creators admitted to The Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame — Osamu Tezuka, Kazuo Koike, and Goseki Kojima — were published in Dark Horse translations.[]

In the following years, manga became increasingly favorite, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.[] The Pokémon mangaElectric Tale of Pikachu issue #1 sold over 1million copies in the United States, making it the best-selling single comic book in the United States since [] By , the U.S.

and Canadian manga market generated $ million in annual sales.[] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Highway Journal, and Wired magazine.[] As of , manga distributor Viz Media is the largest publisher of graphic novels and comic books in the United States, with a 23% share of the market.[]BookScan sales show that manga is one of the fastest-growing areas of the comic book and narrative fiction markets.

From January to May , the manga market grew 16%, compared to the overall comic book market’s 5% growth. The NPD Group noted that, compared to other comic book readers, manga readers are younger (76% under 30) and more diverse, including a higher female readership (16% higher than other comic books).[]

History and characteristics

Main articles: History of manga and Manga iconography

See also: Kibyōshi and Kamishibai

The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, and it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style.

During the Edo period (–), Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga.[32] The expression itself first came into common usage in ,[25] with the publication of works such as Santō Kyōden’s picturebook Shiji no yukikai (),[26][27] and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa’s Manga hyakujo () and the Hokusai Manga books (–).[29][33] Adam L. Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the tardy 18th century, may own been the world’s first comic books.

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These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes.[34] Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing.[9]

Writers on manga history own described two wide and complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war, Meiji, and pre-Meijiculture and art.[35] The other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan (–), and stresses U.S.

cultural influences, including U.S. comics (brought to Japan by the GIs) and images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[36]

Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period,[37] involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san). Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely favorite in Japan and elsewhere,[38] and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in [32] Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations.

In Tezuka’s «cinematographic» technique, the panels are love a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. This helpful of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[39] Hasegawa’s focus on daily life and on women’s experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.[40] Between and , an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.[41]

In a group of female manga artists (later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut («year 24» comes from the Japanese name for the year , the birth-year of numerous of these artists).[42] The group included Moto Hagio, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Ōshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi.[16] Thereafter, primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women.[43] In the following decades (–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving diverse but overlapping subgenres.[44] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and «Ladies Comics» (in Japanese, redisuレディース, redikomiレディコミ, and josei女性).[45]

Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[46] With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori’s Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi PitchReiko Yoshida’s Tokyo Mew Mew, And, Naoko Takeuchi’s Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally favorite in both manga and anime formats.[47] Groups (or sentais) of girls working together own also been favorite within this genre.

Love Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together.[48]

Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years ancient (shōnen manga) and young men 18 to 30 years ancient (seinen manga);[49] as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sex.[50] The Japanese use diverse kanji for two closely allied meanings of «seinen»—青年 for «youth, young man» and 成年 for «adult, majority»—the second referring to pornographic manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin («adult» 成人) manga.[51]Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share a number of features in common.

Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects love robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure.[52] Favorite themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes love Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular.[53]

The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single beautiful girls (bishōjo)[54] such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[55]

With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the s, an assortment of explicit sexual material appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly continued into the English translations.[56] However, in the Tokyo Metropolitan Government passed a bill to restrict such content.[57]

The gekiga style of storytelling—thematically somber, adult-oriented, and sometimes deeply violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in a gritty and unvarnished fashion.[58][59]Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato’s – Chronicles of a Ninja’s Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the tardy s and s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism[60] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists love Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[61]