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Since the subculture has held regular events around the world, Maker Faire, which in drew a crowd of , attendees.[48][49] Smaller, community driven Maker Faires referred to as Mini Maker Fairs are also held in various places where an O’Reilly-organised Maker Faire has not yet been held.[50][51][52][53]Maker Faire provides a Mini Maker Faire starter kit to urge the spread of local Maker Faire events.[54]

Following the Maker Faire model, similar events which don’t use the Maker Faire brand own emerged around the world.


Media

MAKE (a magazine published since by O’Reilly Media), is considered a «central organ of the Maker Movement,»[46] and its founder, Dale Dougherty, is widely considered the founder of the Movement.

Other media outlets associated with the movement include Wamungo, Hackaday, Makery, and the favorite weblog Boing Boing. Boing Boing editor Cory Doctorow has written a novel, Makers, which he describes as being «a book about people who hack hardware, business-models, and living arrangements to discover ways of staying alive and happy even when the economy is falling below the toilet».[47]

In Intel sponsored a reality TV show—America’s Greatest Makers—where 24 teams of makers compete for $1 million.


Other types of making

Maker culture involves numerous types of making – this section reviews some of the major types.

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Clothes

See also: Ravelry

Clothes can include sew and no-sew DIY hacks.[30][31][32]

Clothing can also include knitted or crocheted clothing and accessories. Some knitters may use knitting machines with varying degrees of automatic patterning. Fully electronic knitting machines can be interfaced to computers running computer-aided design software. Arduino boards own been interfaced to electronic knitting machines to further automate the process.[33]

Free People, a favorite clothing retailer for young women, often hosts craft nights inside the doors of its Anthropologie locations.[34]

Cosmetics

Maker cosmetics include perfumes, creams, lotions, shampoos, and eye shadow.[35]

Tool kits for maker cosmetics can include beakers, digital scales, laboratory thermometers (if possible, from to °C), pH paper, glass rods, plastic spatulas, and spray to disinfect with alcohol.

Perfumes can be created at home using ethanol (96%, or even vodka or everclear), essential oils or perfume oils, infused oils, even flavour extracts (such as pure vanilla extract), distilled or spring water and glycerine. Tools include glass bottles, glass jar, measuring cup/measuring spoons, a dropper, funnel, and aluminum foil or wrapping paper.[36]

Biology, food and composting

Examples of maker culture in food production include baking, homebrewing, winemaking, home roasting coffee, vegoil, pickling, sausage, cheesemaking, yogurt and pastry production.

This can also extend into urban agriculture, composting and synthetic biology.[29]

Musical instruments

The concept of homemade and experimental instruments in music has its roots prior to the maker movement, from complicated experiments with figures such as Reed Ghazala and Michel Waisvisz pioneering early circuit bending techniques to simple projects such as the Cigar Box Guitar. Bart Hopkin published the magazine Experimental Musical Instruments for 15 years followed by a series of books about instrument building. Organizations such as Zvex, WORM, STEIM, Death by Audio, and Casper Electronics cater to the do-it-yourself audience, while musicians love Nicolas Collins and Yuri Landman create and act out with custom made and experimental instruments.

Synth DIY

While still living at home Hugh Le Caine began a lifelong interest in electronic music and sound generation. In , he designed an electronic free reed organ, and in the mids, he built the Electronic Sackbut, now recognised to be one of the first synthesizers. In , Robert Moog produced his own theremin design, and the following year he published an article on the theremin in Radio and Television News. In the same year, he founded RA Moog, selling theremins and theremin kits by mail order from his home.[37][38] One of his customers, Raymond Scott, rewired Moog’s theremin for control by keyboard, creating the Clavivox.[39]John Simonton founded PAiA Electronics in Oklahoma City in and began offering various little electronics kits through mail order.[40] Starting in PAiA began producing analog synthesizer kits, in both modular and all-in-one form.

See also Eurorack, DIY and Open Source

Amateur scientific equipment

This involves making scientific instruments for citizen science or open source labs.[25] With the advent of low-cost digital manufacturing it is becoming increasingly common for scientists as well as amateurs to fabricate their own scientific apparatuses from open source hardware designs.[26][27]Docubricks is a repository of open source science hardware.[28]

Tool making

Makers can also make or fabricate their own tools.[41] This includes knives, hand tools, lathes, 3-D printers, wood working tools,[42] etc.

Vehicles

A kit car, also known as a «component car», is an automobile that is available as a set of parts that a manufacturer sells and the buyer himself then assembles into a functioning car.

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Car tuning can include electric vehicle conversion.

Motorcycle making and conversions are also represented. As examples: Tinker Bike is an open source motorcycle kit adaptable to recycled components; NightShift Bikes is a little, Makerist project in custom, DIY electric motorcycle conversions.[43]

Bicycles, too, own a DIY, Maker-style community.

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Zenga Bros’ Tall Bikes are one example.[44] Community bike workshops are a specific type of makerspaces.[45]


Tools and hardware

See also: Free hardware

Computers

Programmable microcontrollers and single-board computers love the Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone Black, and Intel’s Galileo and Edison, numerous of which are open source, are simple to program and join to devices such as sensors, displays, and actuators. This lowers the barrier to entry for hardware development.

Combined with the cloud, this technology enables the Internet of Things.

Digital fabrication

Desktop 3D printing is now possible in various plastics and metals.[24] In combination with DIY open-source microelectronics, they can create autoreplicant 3d printers, such as RepRap. Digital fabrication also includes various subtractive fabrication tech, eg. Laser cutting, CNC milling, and Knitting machines.

To create one’s own designs for digital fabrication requires digital design tools, love Solidworks, Autodesk, and Rhinoceros 3D.

More recently, less expensive or easier to use software has emerged. Free, open-source software such as FreeCAD can be extremely useful in the design process. Autodesk’s Fusion is free for start ups and individuals, and Onshape and Tinkercad are browser-based digital design software.

Online project repositories make numerous parts available for digital fabrication—even for people who are unable to do their own design work. Opendesk is one example of a company which has made a trade by designing and hosting projects for distributed digital fabrication.

Cloud

Cloud computing describes a family of tools in service of the maker movement, enabling increased collaboration, digital workflow, distributed manufacturing (i.e.

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the download of files that translate directly into objects via a digitized manufacturing process) and sharing economy. This, combined with the open source movement, initially focused on software, has been expanding into open-source hardware, assisted by simple access to online plans (in the cloud) and licensing agreements.

Some example of cloud-based tools include online project repositories love Appropedia and thingiverse, version-controlled collaborative platforms love GitHub and wevolver, knowledge sharing platforms love instructables, wikipedia and other Wikis, including WikiHow and wikifab and platforms for distributed manufacturing love shapeways and k garages.

Funding platforms

Patreon and Kickstarter are two examples of distributed funding platforms key to the maker movement.

Hand tools

Maker culture is not every about new, digital technologies. Traditional and analog tools remain crucial to the movement. Traditional tools are often more familiar and accessible, which is key to maker culture. In numerous places and projects where digital fabrication tools are just not suitable, hand tools are.


Philosophical emphasis

The maker movement is a social movement with an artisan spirit. Promoting equity in the maker movement is fundamental to its success in democratizing access to STEAM and other tech-rich and art domains.

Maker culture emphasizes learning-through-doing (active learning) in a social environment.

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Maker culture emphasizes informal, networked, peer-led, and shared learning motivated by enjoyment and self-fulfillment.[4] Maker culture encourages novel applications of technologies, and the exploration of intersections between traditionally separate domains and ways of working including metal-working, calligraphy, film making, and computer programming. Community interaction and knowledge sharing are often mediated through networked technologies, with websites and social media tools forming the basis of knowledge repositories and a central channel for information sharing and exchange of ideas, and focused through social meetings in shared spaces such as hackspaces. Maker culture has attracted the interest of educators concerned about students’ disengagement from STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) in formal educational settings.

Maker culture is seen as having the potential to contribute to a more participatory approach and create new pathways into topics that will make them more alive and relevant to learners.

Some tell that the maker movement is a reaction to the de-valuing of physical exploration and the growing sense of disconnection with the physical world in modern cities.[5] Numerous products produced by the maker communities own a focus on health (food), sustainable development, environmentalism and local culture, and can from that point of view also be seen as a negative response to disposables, globalisedmass production, the power of chain stores, multinationals and consumerism.

In reaction to the rise of maker culture, Barack Obama pledged to open several national research and development facilities to the public.[5] In addition the U.S. federal government renamed one of their national centers «America Makes».[6]

The methods of digital fabrication—previously the exclusive domain of institutions—have made making on a personal scale accessible, following a logical and economic progression similar to the transition from minicomputers to personal computers in the microcomputer revolution of the s.[7] In , Dale Dougherty launched Make magazine to serve the growing community, followed by the launch of Maker Faire in [8] The term, coined by Dougherty, grew into a full-fledged industry based on the growing number of DIYers who desire to build something rather than purchase it.

Spurred primarily by the advent of RepRap3D printing for the fabrication of prototypes, declining cost and wide adoption own opened up new realms of innovation. As it has become cost effective to make just one item for prototyping (or a little number of household items),[9] this approach can be depicted as personal fabrication for «a market of one person».[7]


Makerspaces

Main articles: Makerspace, Hackerspace, and Fablab

The rise of the maker culture is closely associated with the rise of hackerspaces, Fab Labs and other «makerspaces», of which there are now numerous around the world, including over each in Germany and the United States.[10] Hackerspaces permit like-minded individuals to share ideas, tools, and skillsets.[11][12] Some notable hackerspaces which own been linked with the maker culture include Artisan’s Asylum,[13] Dallas Makerspace[14], Noisebridge, NYC Resistor, Pumping Station: One, and TechShop.

In addition, those who identify with the subculture can be found at more traditional universities with a technical orientation, such as MIT and Carnegie Mellon (specifically around «shop» areas love the MIT Hobby Store and CMU Robotics Club). As maker culture becomes more favorite, hackerspaces and Fab Labs are becoming more common in universities[15] and public libraries. The federal government has started adopting the concept of fully open makerspaces within its agencies, the first of which (SpaceShop Rapid Prototyping Lab) resides at NASA Ames Research Center.[16] In Europe the popularity of the labs is more prominent than in the US: about three times more labs exist there.[17]

Outside Europe and the US, the maker culture is also on the rise, with several hacker or makerspaces being landmarks in their respective cities’ entrepreneurial and educational landscape.

More precisely: HackerspaceSG in Singapore has been set up by the team now leading the city-state’s (and, arguably, South-East Asia’s) most prominent accelerator Lamba Labs in Beirut is recognized as a hackerspace where people can collaborate freely, in a city often divided by its diverse ethnic and religious groups.[18] Xinchejian[19] in Shanghai is China’s first hackerspace, which allows for innovation and collaboration in a country known for its strong internet censorship.

With the rise of cities, which will host 60% of the human population by ,[20] hackerspaces, fablabs and makerspaces will likely acquire traction, as they are places for local entrepreneurs to collect and collaborate, providing local solutions to environmental, social or economical issues.[21][22] The Institute for the Future has launched in this regard Maker Cities as «an open and collaborative online game, to generate ideas about how citizens are changing work, production, governance, learning, well-being, and their neighborhoods, and what this means for the future».[23]


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