Diy notebook cover design ideas

Most of the following terms apply only with honor to American practices:

  • A leaf (often wrongly referred to as a folio) typically has two pages of text and/or images, front and back, in a finished book. The Latin for leaf is folium, therefore the ablative «folio» («on the folium») should be followed by a designation to distinguish between recto and verso. Thus «folio 5r» means «on the recto of the leaf numbered 5». Although technically not precise, common usage is «on folio 5r». In everyday lecture it is common to refer to «turning the pages of a book», although it would be more precise to tell «turning the leaves of a book»; this is the origin of the phrase «to turn over a new leaf» i.e.

    to start on a unused empty sheet.

    1. The recto side of a leaf faces left when the leaf is held straight up from the spine (in a paginated book this is generally an odd-numbered page).
    2. The verso side of a leaf faces correct when the leaf is held straight up from the spine (in a paginated book this is generally an even-numbered page).
    3. A bifolium (often wrongly called a «bifolio», «bi-folio», or even «bifold») is a single sheet folded in half to make two leaves. The plural is «bifolia», not «bifolios».
  • A bifolium (often wrongly called a «bifolio», «bi-folio», or even «bifold») is a single sheet folded in half to make two leaves.

    The plural is «bifolia», not «bifolios».

  • A section, sometimes called a gathering, or, especially if unprinted, a quire,[35] is a group of bifolia nested together as a single unit.[36] In a completed book, each quire is sewn through its fold. Depending of how numerous bifolia a quire is made of, it could be called:[37]
    1. quaternion– four bifolia, producing eight leaves;
    2. quinternion– five bifolia, producing ten leaves;
    3. A codex is a series of one or more quires sewn through their folds, and linked together by the sewing thread.
    4. ternion– three bifolia, producing six leaves;
    5. sextern or sexternion[38]– six bifolia, producing twelve leaves.
    6. duernion– two bifolia, producing four leaves;
    7. A signature, in the context of printed books, is a section that contains text.

      Though the term signature technically refers to the signature mark, traditionally a letter or number printed on the first leaf of a section in order to facilitate collation, the distinction is rarely made today.[39]

  • A codex is a series of one or more quires sewn through their folds, and linked together by the sewing thread.
  • A signature, in the context of printed books, is a section that contains text. Though the term signature technically refers to the signature mark, traditionally a letter or number printed on the first leaf of a section in order to facilitate collation, the distinction is rarely made today.[39]
  • Folio, quarto, and so on may also refer to the size of the finished book, based on the size of sheet that an early paper maker could conveniently turn out with a manual press.

    Paper sizes could vary considerably, and the finished size was also affected by how the pages were trimmed, so the sizes given are rough values only.

    1. A quarto volume is typically about 9 by 12in (23 by 30cm), roughly the size of most modern magazines. A sheet folded in quarto (also 4to or 4º) is folded in half twice at correct angles to make four leaves. Also called: eight-page signature.
    2. An octavo volume is typically about 5 to 6in (13 to 15cm) by 8 to 9in (20 to 23cm), the size of most modern digest magazines or trade paperbacks.

      A sheet folded in octavo (also 8vo or 8º) is folded in half 3 times to make 8 leaves. Also called: sixteen-page signature.

    3. Duodecimo or 12mo, 24mo, 32mo, and even 64mo are other possible sizes. Modern paper mills can produce extremely large sheets, so a modern printer will often print 64 or pages on a single sheet.
    4. A sextodecimo volume is about 412 by 634in (11 by 17cm), the size of most mass market paperbacks. A sheet folded in sextodecimo (also 16mo or 16º) is folded in half 4 times to make 16 leaves. Also called: sheet signature.
    5. A folio volume is typically 15in (38cm) or more in height, the largest sort of regular book.
    6. Trimming separates the leaves of the bound book.

      A sheet folded in quarto will own folds at the spine and also across the top, so the top folds must be trimmed away before the leaves can be turned. A quire folded in octavo or greater may also require that the other two sides be trimmed. Deckle edge, or Uncut books are untrimmed or incompletely trimmed, and may be of special interest to book collectors.

    Paperback binding

    Though books are sold as hardcover or paperback, the actual binding of the pages is significant to durability. Most paperbacks and some hard cover books own a «perfect binding». The pages are aligned or cut together and glued. A strong and flexible layer, which may or may not be the glue itself, holds the book together.

    In the case of a paperback, the visible portion of the spine is part of this flexible layer.


    Overview

    Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring, cutting, and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to finish, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, and graphic arts. It requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with every the internal and external details of assembly.

    A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will discover an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and even items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed, accuracy, and efficiency.

    Bookbinding is an artistic craft of grand antiquity, and at the same time, a highly mechanized industry. The division between craft and industry is not so wide as might at first be imagined. It is exciting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.

    The first problem is still how to hold together the pages of a book; secondly is how to cover and protect the gathering of pages once they are held together; and thirdly, how to label and decorate the protective cover.


    History

    Early book formats

    In addition to the scroll, wax tablets were commonly used in Antiquity as a writing surface. Diptychs and later polyptych formats were often hinged together along one edge, analogous to the spine of modern books, as well as a folding concertina format. Such a set of simple wooden boards sewn together was called by the Romans a codex (pl. codices)—from the Latin expression caudex, meaning «the trunk» of a tree, around the first century AD.

    Two ancient polyptychs, a pentaptych and octoptych, excavated at Herculaneum employed a unique connecting system that presages later sewing on thongs or cords.[4]

    At the turn of the first century, a helpful of folded parchment notebook called pugillares membranei in Latin, became commonly used for writing throughout the Roman Empire. This term was used by both the pagan Roman poetMartial and ChristianapostlePaul the Apostle.

    Martial used the term with reference to gifts of literature exchanged by Romans during the festival of Saturnalia. According to T. C. Skeat, «in at least three cases and probably in every, in the form of codices» and he theorized that this form of notebook was invented in Rome and then «must own spread rapidly to the Near East». In his discussion of one of the earliest pagan parchment codices to survive from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, Eric Turner seems to challenge Skeat’s notion when stating «its mere existence is evidence that this book form had a prehistory» and that «early experiments with this book form may well own taken put exterior of Egypt».[7]

    Early intact codices were discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt.

    Consisting of primarily Gnostic texts in Coptic, the books were mostly written on papyrus, and while numerous are single-quire, a few are multi-quire. Codices were a significant improvement over papyrus or vellum scrolls in that they were easier to handle. However, despite allowing writing on both sides of the leaves, they were still foliated—numbered on the leaves, love the Indian books. The thought spread quickly through the early churches, and the expression Bible comes from the town where the Byzantine monks established their first scriptorium, Byblos, in modern Lebanon.

    The thought of numbering each side of the page—Latin pagina, «to fasten»—appeared when the text of the individual testaments of the Bible were combined and text had to be searched through more quickly. This book format became the preferred way of preserving manuscript or printed material.

    Development

    The codex-style book, using sheets of either papyrus or vellum (before the spread of Chinese papermaking exterior of Imperial China), was invented in the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD.[8] First described by the poet Martial from Roman Spain, it largely replaced earlier writing mediums such as wax tablets and scrolls by the year AD.[9] By the 6th century AD, the scroll and wax tablet had been completely replaced by the codex in the Western world.[10]

    Western books from the fifth century onwards[citation needed] were bound between hard covers, with pages made from parchment folded and sewn onto strong cords or ligaments that were attached to wooden boards and covered with leather.

    Since early books were exclusively handwritten on handmade materials, sizes and styles varied considerably, and there was no standard of uniformity. Early and medieval codices were bound with flat spines, and it was not until the fifteenth century that books began to own the rounded spines associated with hardcovers today.[11] Because the vellum of early books would react to humidity by swelling, causing the book to take on a characteristic wedge shape, the wooden covers of medieval books were often secured with straps or clasps.

    These straps, along with metal bosses on the book’s covers to hold it raised off the surface that it rests on, are collectively known as furniture.

    The earliest surviving European bookbinding is the St Cuthbert Gospel of about , in red goatskin, now in the British Library, whose decoration includes raised patterns and coloured tooled designs. Extremely grand manuscripts for liturgical rather than library use had covers in metalwork called treasure bindings, often studded with gems and incorporating ivory relief panels or enamel elements. Extremely few of these own survived intact, as they own been broken up for their precious materials, but a fair number of the ivory panels own survived, as they were hard to recycle; the divided panels from the Codex Aureus of Lorsch are among the most notable.

    The 8th century Vienna Coronation Gospels were given a new gold relief cover in about , and the Lindau Gospels (now Morgan Library, New York) own their original cover from around

    Luxury medieval books for the library had leather covers decorated, often every over, with tooling (incised lines or patterns), blind stamps, and often little metal pieces of furniture. Medieval stamps showed animals and figures as well as the vegetal and geometric designs that would later dominate book cover decoration. Until the finish of the period books were not generally stood up on shelves in the modern way. The most functional books were bound in plain white vellum over boards, and had a brief title hand-written on the spine.

    Techniques for fixing gold leaf under the tooling and stamps were imported from the Islamic world in the 15th century, and thereafter the gold-tooled leather binding has remained the conventional choice for high quality bindings for collectors, though cheaper bindings that only used gold for the title on the spine, or not at every, were always more common. Although the arrival of the printed book vastly increased the number of books produced in Europe, it did not in itself change the various styles of binding used, except that vellum became much less used.

    Introduction of paper

    This section needs expansion. You can assist by adding to it.(February )

    Although early, rough hempen paper had existed in China during the Western Han period ( BC — 9 AD), the Eastern-Han Chinese court eunuch Cai Lun (ca.

    50 AD– AD) introduced the first significant improvement and standardization of papermaking by adding essential new materials into its composition.[15]

    In the 8th century Arabs learned the arts of papermaking from the Chinese and were then the first to bind paper into books at the start of the Islamic Golden Age.[16] Specific skills were developed for Arabic calligraphy, miniatures and bookbinding. The people who worked in making books were called Warraqin or paper professionals. The Arabs made books lighter—sewn with silk and bound with leather covered paste boards, they had a flap that wrapped the book up when not in use.

    As paper was less reactive to humidity, the heavy boards were not needed. The production of books became a genuine industry and cities love Marrakech, Morocco, had a highway named Kutubiyyin or book sellers, which contained more than bookshops in the 12th century. The renowned Koutoubia Mosque is named so because of its location on this highway. Because the Qur’an itself was considered a sacred object, in order to beautify the book containing the holy scripture, a culture of calligraphy and lavish bookbinding developed.[17]

    Bookbinding in medieval China replaced traditional Chinese writing supports such as bamboo and wooden slips, as well as silk and paper scrolls.[18] The evolution of the codex in China began with folded-leaf pamphlets in the 9th century AD, during the tardy Tang Dynasty ( AD), improved by the ‘butterfly’ bindings of the Song dynasty ( AD), the wrapped back binding of the Yuan dynasty (), the stitched binding of the Ming ( AD) and Qing dynasties (), and finally the adoption of Western-style bookbinding in the 20th century (coupled with the European printing press that replaced traditional Chinese printing methods).[19] The initial phase of this evolution, the accordion-folded palm-leaf-style book, most likely came from India and was introduced to China via Buddhist missionaries and scriptures.[20]

    With the arrival (from the East) of rag paper manufacturing in Europe in the tardy Middle Ages and the use of the printing press beginning in the midth century, bookbinding began to standardize somewhat, but sheet sizes still varied considerably.[citation needed]

    In the early sixteenth century, the Italian printer Aldus Manutius realized that personal books would need to fit in saddle bags and thus produced books in the smaller formats of quartos (one-quarter-size pages) and octavos (one-eighth-size pages).[21]

    With printing, the books became more accessible and were stored on their side on endless shelves for the first time.

    Clasps were removed, and titles were added to the spine.[22]

    Leipzig, a prominent centre of the German book-trade, in had 20 bookshops, 15 printing establishments, 22 book-binders and three type-foundries in a population of 28, people.

    In the German book-distribution system of the tardy 18th and early 19th centuries, the end-user buyers of books «generally made separate arrangements with either the publisher or a bookbinder to own printed sheets bound according to their wishes and their budget».[24]

    The reduced cost of books facilitated cheap lightweight Bibles, made from tissue-thin oxford paper, with floppy covers, that resembled the early ArabicQurans, enabling missionaries to take portable books with them around the world, and modern wood glues enabled the addition of paperback covers to simple glue bindings.

    Origins of the book

    The craft of bookbinding probably originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves (cut into two, lengthwise) with a metal stylus. The leaf was then dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, and two endless twines were threaded through each finish through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book. When the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the thought through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC.

    Similar techniques can also be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex; only four are known to own survived the Spanish invasion of Latin America.

    Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls; these were stored in boxes or shelving with little cubbyholes, similar to a modern winerack. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while significant documents were written on papyrus or parchment.

    The modern English expression book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.[3]

    The book was not needed in ancient times, as numerous early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages endless, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were often longer, running to hundreds of pages. The Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning «to cut». The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive pages endless and was used in funerary services for the deceased.

    Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read.

    Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways. The first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the finish of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound. This is partially overcome in the second method, which is to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah.

    With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and finish, and the portions of the scroll not being read can remain wound. This still leaves the scroll a sequential-access medium: to reach a given sheet, one generally has to unroll and re-roll numerous other pages.

    Historical forms of binding

    Historical forms of binding include the following:[25]

    Some older presses could not separate the pages of a book, so readers used a paper knife to separate the outer edges of pages as a book was read.


    Modern hand binding

    Modern bookbinding by hand can be seen as two closely allied fields: the creation of new bindings, and the repair of existing bindings.

    Bookbinders are often athletic in both fields. Bookbinders can study the craft through apprenticeship; by attending specialized trade schools;[31] by taking classes in the course of university studies, or by a combination of those methods. Some European countries offer a Master Bookbinder certification, though no such certification exists in the United States. MFA programs that specialize in the ‘Book Arts’ (hand paper-making, printmaking and bookbinding) are available through certain colleges and universities.[32]

    Hand bookbinders create new bindings that run the gamut from historical book structures made with traditional materials to modern structures made with 21st-century materials, and from basic cloth-case bindings to valuable full-leather fine bindings.

    Repairs to existing books also encompass a wide range of techniques, from minimally invasive conservation of a historic book to the full restoration and rebinding of a text.

    Though almost any existing book can be repaired to some extent, only books that were originally sewn can be rebound by resewing. Repairs or restorations are often done to emulate the style of the original binding. For new works, some publishers print unbound manuscripts which a binder can collate and bind, but often an existing commercially bound book is pulled, or taken apart, in order to be given a new binding.

    Once the textblock of the book has been pulled, it can be rebound in almost any structure; a modern suspense novel, for instance, could be rebound to glance love a 16th-century manuscript. Bookbinders may bind several copies of the same text, giving each copy a unique appearance.

    Hand bookbinders use a variety of specialized hand tools, the most emblematic of which is the bonefolder, a flat, tapered, polished piece of bone used to crease paper and apply pressure.[33] Additional tools common to hand bookbinding include a variety of knives and hammers, as well as brass tools used during finishing.

    When creating new work, modern hand binders often work on commission, creating bindings for specific books or collections.

    Books can be bound in numerous diverse materials. Some of the more common materials for covers are leather, decorative paper, and cloth (see also: buckram). Those bindings that are made with exceptionally high craftsmanship, and that are made of particularly high-quality materials (especially full leather bindings), are known as fine or extra bindings. Also, when creating a new work, modern binders may wish to select a book that has already been printed and create what is known as a ‘design binding’. «In a typical design binding, the binder selects an already printed book, disassembles it, and rebinds it in a style of fine binding—rounded and backed spine, laced-in boards, sewn headbands, decorative finish sheets, leather cover etc.»[34]


    Modern commercial binding

    There are various commercial techniques in use today.

    Today, most commercially produced books belong to one of four categories:

    Punch and bind

    Different types of the punch and bind binding include:

    • Comb binding uses a 9/16″ pitch rectangular hole pattern punched near the bound edge. A curled plastic «comb» is fed through the slits to hold the sheets together. Comb binding allows a book to be disassembled and reassembled by hand without damage. Comb supplies are typically available in a wide range of colors and diameters.

      The supplies themselves can be re-used or recycled. In the United States, comb binding is often referred to as ring binding because it uses a entire of 19 holes along the inch side of a sheet of paper.

    • Double wire, twin loop, or Wire-O binding is a type of binding that is used for books that will be viewed or read in an office or home type environment. The binding involves the use of a «C» shaped wire spine that is squeezed into a circular shape using a wire closing device. Double wire binding allows books to own smooth crossover and is affordable in numerous colors.

      This binding is grand for annual reports, owners manuals and software manuals. Wire bound books are made of individual sheets, each punched with a line of circular or square holes on the binding edge. This type of binding uses either a pitch hole pattern with three holes per inch or a pitch hole pattern with two holes per inch. The three to one hole pattern is used for smaller books that are up to 9/16″ in diameter while the pattern is normally used for thicker books as the holes are slightly bigger to accommodate slightly thicker, stronger wire.

      Diy notebook cover design ideas

      Once punched, the back cover is then placed on to the front cover ready for the wire binding elements (double loop wire) to be inserted. The wire is then placed through the holes. The next step involves the binder holding the book by its pages and inserting the wire into a «closer» which is basically a vise that crimps the wire closed and into its circular shape. The back sheet can then be turned back to its correct position, thus hiding the spine of the book.

    • VeloBind is used to permanently rivet pages together using a plastic strip on the front and back of the document.

      Sheets for the document are punched with a line of holes near the bound edge. A series of pins attached to a plastic strip called a Comb feeds through the holes to the other side and then goes through another plastic strip called the receiving strip. The excess portion of the pins is cut off and the plastic heat-sealed to create a relatively flat bind method. VeloBind provides a more permanent bind than comb-binding, but is primarily used for trade and legal presentations and little publications.

    • Spiral binding is the most economical form of mechanical binding when using plastic or metal.

      It is commonly used for atlases[citation needed] and other publications where it is necessary or desirable to be capable to open the publication back on itself without breaking the spine. There are several types but basically it is made by punching holes along the entire length of the spine of the sheet and winding a wire helix (like a spring) through the holes to provide a fully flexible hinge at the spine. Spiral coil binding uses a number of diverse hole patterns for binding documents.

      The most common hole pattern used with this style is pitch (4 holes per inch). However, spiral coil spines are also available for use with pitch, pitch and hole patterns.

    Hardcover binding

    A hardcover, hardbound or hardback book has rigid covers and is stitched in the spine. Looking from the top of the spine, the book can be seen to consist of a number of signatures bound together. When the book is opened in the middle of a signature, the binding threads are visible. Signatures of hardcover books are typically octavo (a single sheet folded three times), though they may also be folio, quarto, or 16mo (see Book size).

    Diy notebook cover design ideas

    Unusually large and heavy books are sometimes bound with wire.

    Until the midth century, covers of mass-produced books were laid with cloth, but from that period onward, most publishers adopted clothette, a helpful of textured paper which vaguely resembles cloth but is easily differentiated on shut inspection. Most cloth-bound books are now half-and-half covers with cloth covering only the spine. In that case, the cover has a paper overlap. The covers of modern hardback books are made of thick cardboard.

    Some books that appeared in the midth century signature-bound appear in reprinted editions in glued-together editions.

    Copies of such books stitched together in their original format are often hard to discover, and are much sought after for both aesthetic and practical reasons.

    A variation of the hardcover which is more durable is the calf-binding, where the cover is either half or fully clad in leather, generally from a calf. This is also called full-bound or, simply, leather bound.

    Library binding refers to the hardcover binding of books intended for the rigors of library use and are largely serials and paperback publications.

    Though numerous publishers own started to provide «library binding» editions, numerous libraries elect to purchase paperbacks and own them rebound in hard covers for longer life.

    Methods of hardcover binding

    There are a number of methods used to bind hardcover books, from them:

    Hardcover binding

    A hardcover, hardbound or hardback book has rigid covers and is stitched in the spine. Looking from the top of the spine, the book can be seen to consist of a number of signatures bound together. When the book is opened in the middle of a signature, the binding threads are visible. Signatures of hardcover books are typically octavo (a single sheet folded three times), though they may also be folio, quarto, or 16mo (see Book size).

    Unusually large and heavy books are sometimes bound with wire.

    Until the midth century, covers of mass-produced books were laid with cloth, but from that period onward, most publishers adopted clothette, a helpful of textured paper which vaguely resembles cloth but is easily differentiated on shut inspection. Most cloth-bound books are now half-and-half covers with cloth covering only the spine. In that case, the cover has a paper overlap. The covers of modern hardback books are made of thick cardboard.

    Some books that appeared in the midth century signature-bound appear in reprinted editions in glued-together editions. Copies of such books stitched together in their original format are often hard to discover, and are much sought after for both aesthetic and practical reasons.

    A variation of the hardcover which is more durable is the calf-binding, where the cover is either half or fully clad in leather, generally from a calf. This is also called full-bound or, simply, leather bound.

    Library binding refers to the hardcover binding of books intended for the rigors of library use and are largely serials and paperback publications.

    Though numerous publishers own started to provide «library binding» editions, numerous libraries elect to purchase paperbacks and own them rebound in hard covers for longer life.

    Methods of hardcover binding

    There are a number of methods used to bind hardcover books, from them:

    • Oversewing, where the signatures of the book start off as loose pages which are then clamped together. Little vertical holes are punched through the far left-hand edge of each signature, and then the signatures are sewn together with lock-stitches to form the text block. Oversewing is a extremely strong method of binding and can be done on books up to five inches thick.

      However, the margins of oversewn books are reduced and the pages will not lie flat when opened.

    • Case binding is the most common type of hardcover binding for books. The pages are arranged in signatures and glued together into a «textblock.» The textblock is then attached to the cover or «case» which is made of cardboard covered with paper, cloth, vinyl or leather. This is also known as cloth binding, or edition binding.
    • Sewing through the fold (also called Smyth Sewing), where the signatures of the book are folded and stitched through the fold. The signatures are then sewn and glued together at the spine to form a text block. In contrast to oversewing, through-the-fold books own wide margins and can open completely flat.

      Diy notebook cover design ideas

      Numerous varieties of sewing stitches exist, from basic links to the often used Kettle Stitch. While Western books are generally sewn through punched holes or sawed notches along the fold, some Asian bindings, such as the Retchoso or Butterfly Stitch of Japan, use little slits instead of punched holes.

    • Double-fan adhesive binding starts off with two signatures of loose pages, which are run over a roller—»fanning» the pages—to apply a thin layer of glue to each sheet edge. Then the two signatures are perfectly aligned to form a text block, and glue edges of the text block are attached to a piece of cloth lining to form the spine.

      Double-fan adhesive bound books can open completely flat and own a wide margin.

      Diy notebook cover design ideas

      However, certain types of paper do not hold adhesive well, and, with wear and tear, the pages can come loose.[29]

    Thermally activated binding

    Some of the diverse types of thermally activated binding include:

    Thermally activated binding

    Some of the diverse types of thermally activated binding include:

    • Perfect binding is often used for paperback books. It is also used for magazines; National Geographic is one example of this type.

      Perfect-bound books generally consist of various sections with a cover made from heavier paper, glued together at the spine with a strong glue. The sections are milled in the back and notches are applied into the spine to permit boiling glue to penetrate into the spine of the book. The other three sides are then face-trimmed. This is what allows the magazine or paperback book to be opened. Mass-market paperbacks (pulp paperbacks) are little (16mo size), cheaply made with each sheet fully cut and glued at the spine; these are likely to drop apart or lose sheets after much handling or several years.

      Trade paperbacks are more sturdily made, with traditional gatherings or sections of bifolios, generally larger, and more expensive. The difference between the two can generally easily be seen by looking for the sections in the top or bottom sides of the book.

    • A cardboard article looks love a hardbound book at first sight, but it is really a paperback with hard covers. Numerous books that are sold as hardcover are actually of this type. The Modern Library series is an example. This type of document is generally bound with thermal adhesive glue using a perfect-binding machine.
    • Thermal binding uses a one-piece cover with glue below the spine to quickly and easily bind documents without the need for punching.

      Individuals generally purchase «thermal covers» or «therm-a-bind covers», which are generally made to fit a standard-size sheet of paper and come with a glue channel below the spine. The paper is placed in the cover, heated in a machine (basically a griddle), and when the glue cools, it adheres the paper to the spine. Thermal glue strips can also be purchased separately for individuals that wish to use customized/original covers. However, creating documents using thermal binding glue strips can be a tedious process, which requires a scoring device and a large-format printer.

    • Tape binding refers to a system that wraps and glues a piece of tape around the base of the document.

      A tape-binding machine such as the PLANAX COPY Binder or Powis Parker Fastback system will generally be used to finish the binding process and to activate the thermal adhesive on the glue strip.

      Diy notebook cover design ideas

      However, some users also refer to tape binding as the process of adding a colored tape to the edge of a mechanically fastened (stapled or stitched) document.

    Stitched or sewn binding

    Types of stitched or sewn bindings:

    Stitched or sewn binding

    Types of stitched or sewn bindings:

    • A sewn book is constructed in the same way as a hardbound book, except that it lacks the hard covers. The binding is as durable as that of a hardbound book.
    • Stapling through the centerfold, also called saddle-stitching, joins a set of nested folios into a single magazine issue; most comic books are well-known examples of this type.
    • Magazines are considered more ephemeral than books, and less durable means of binding them are usual.

      In general, the cover papers of magazines will be the same as the inner pages (self-cover)[30] or only slightly heavier (plus cover). Most magazines are stapled or saddle-stitched; however, some are bound with perfect binding and use thermally activated adhesive.


    Conservation and restoration

    Conservation and restoration are practices intended to repair damage to an existing book. While they share methods, their goals differ. The goal of conservation is to slow the book’s decay and restore it to a usable state while altering its physical properties as little as possible. Conservation methods own been developed in the course of taking care of large collections of books.

    The term archival comes from taking care of the institutions archive of books. The goal of restoration is to return the book to a previous state as envisioned by the restorer, often imagined as the original state of the book. The methods of restoration own been developed by bookbinders with private clients mostly interested in improving their collections.

    In either case, one of the modern standard for conservation and restoration is «reversibility».

    That is, any repair should be done in such a way that it can be undone if and when a better technique is developed in the future. Bookbinders echo the physician’s creed, «First, do no harm». While reversibility is one standard, longevity of the functioning of the book is also extremely significant and sometimes takes precedence over reversibility especially in areas that are invisible to the reader such as the spine lining.

    Books requiring restoration or conservation treatment run the gamut from the extremely earliest of texts to books with modern bindings that own undergone heavy usage. For each book, a course of treatment must be chosen that takes into account the book’s worth, whether it comes from the binding, the text, the provenance, or some combination of the three. Numerous people select to rebind books, from amateurs who restore ancient paperbacks on internet instructions to numerous professional book and paper conservators and restorationists, who often in the United States are members of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC).

    Many times, books that need to be restored are hundreds of years ancient, and the handling of the pages and binding has to be undertaken with grand care and a delicate hand. The archival process of restoration and conservation can extend a book’s life for numerous decades and is necessary to preserve books that sometimes are limited to a little handful of remaining copies worldwide.

    Typically, the first step in saving and preserving a book is its deconstruction. The text pages need to be separated from the covers and, only if necessary, the stitching removed.

    This is done as delicately as possible. Every sheet restoration is done at this point, be it the removal of foxing, ink stains, sheet tears, etc. Various techniques are employed to repair the various types of sheet damage that might own occurred during the life of the book.

    The preparation of the «foundations» of the book could mean the difference between a beautiful work of art and a useless stack of paper and leather.

    The sections are then hand-sewn in the style of its period, back into book form, or the original sewing is strengthened with new lining on the text-spine. New hinges must be accounted for in either case both with text-spine lining and some sort of end-sheet restoration.

    The next step is the restoration of the book cover; This can be as complicated as completely re-creating a period binding to match the original using whatever is appropriate for that time it was originally created. Sometimes this means a new full leather binding with vegetable tanned leather, dyed with natural dyes, and hand-marbled papers may be used for the sides or end-sheets. Finally the cover is hand-tooled in gold leaf. The design of the book cover involves such hand-tooling, where an extremely thin layer of gold is applied to the cover. Such designs can be lettering, symbols, or floral designs, depending on the nature of any specific project.

    Sometimes the restoration of the cover is a matter of surgically strengthening the original cover by lifting the original materials and applying new materials for strength.

    This is perhaps a more common method for covers made with book-cloth although leather books can be approached this way as well. Materials such as Japanese tissues of various weights may be used. Colors may be matched using acrylic paints or simple colored pencils.

    It is harder to restore leather books typically because of the fragility of the materials.


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