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With Bootstrap 2, we added optional mobile friendly styles for key aspects of the framework.

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With Bootstrap 3, we’ve rewritten the project to be mobile friendly from the start. Instead of adding on optional mobile styles, they’re baked correct into the core. In fact, Bootstrap is mobile first. Mobile first styles can be found throughout the entire library instead of in separate files.

To ensure proper rendering and touch zooming, add the viewport meta tag to your .

You can disable zooming capabilities on mobile devices by adding to the viewport meta tag. This disables zooming, meaning users are only capable to scroll, and results in your site feeling a bit more love a native application.

Overall, we don’t recommend this on every site, so use caution!


Media queries

We use the following media queries in our Less files to create the key breakpoints in our grid system.

We occasionally expand on these media queries to include a to limit CSS to a narrower set of devices.


Introduction

Grid systems are used for creating sheet layouts through a series of rows and columns that home your content. Here’s how the Bootstrap grid system works:

  1. Columns create gutters (gaps between column content) via . That padding is offset in rows for the first and final column via negative margin on s.
  2. Use rows to create horizontal groups of columns.
  3. Grid columns are created by specifying the number of twelve available columns you wish to span.

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    For example, three equal columns would use three .

  4. The negative margin is why the examples under are outdented. It’s so that content within grid columns is lined up with non-grid content.
  5. Content should be placed within columns, and only columns may be immediate children of rows.
  6. Rows must be placed within a (fixed-width) or (full-width) for proper alignment and padding.
  7. Predefined grid classes love and are available for quickly making grid layouts. Less mixins can also be used for more semantic layouts.
  8. If more than 12 columns are placed within a single row, each group of additional columns will, as one unit, wrap onto a new line.
  9. Grid classes apply to devices with screen widths greater than or equal to the breakpoint sizes, and override grid classes targeted at smaller devices.

    Therefore, e.g.

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    applying any class to an element will not only affect its styling on medium devices but also on large devices if a class is not present.

Look to the examples for applying these principles to your code.


Containers

Bootstrap requires a containing element to wrap site contents and home our grid system. You may select one of two containers to use in your projects.

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Note that, due to and more, neither container is nestable.

Use for a responsive fixed width container.

Use for a full width container, spanning the entire width of your viewport.

Bootstrap includes a responsive, mobile first fluid grid system that appropriately scales up to 12 columns as the device or viewport size increases. It includes predefined classes for simple layout options, as well as powerful mixins for generating more semantic layouts.


HTML5 doctype

Bootstrap makes use of certain HTML elements and CSS properties that require the use of the HTML5 doctype.

Include it at the beginning of every your projects.


For improved cross-browser rendering, we use , a project by Nicolas Gallagher and Jonathan Neal.


Typography and links

Bootstrap sets basic global display, typography, and link styles.

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Specifically, we:

  1. Use the , , and attributes as our typographic base
  2. Set on the
  3. Set the global link color via and apply link underlines only on

These styles can be found within .


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